We've all heard that red wine is "good for your heart." In the early 1990s, the media reported the so-called French Paradox, despite a diet full of saturated fats and refined carbohydrate, the French have few heart attacks and credited it to their consumption of red wine. Since then, many scientific studies have indicated that moderate wine drinking protects against cardiovascular disease, and recent preliminary studies indicate wine may play a potential role in protecting against certain cancers, dementia, and in enhancing lung function and increasing longevity. Most of the research is centered on polyphenols, potent antioxidants that are found in grapes. This article summarizes recent research, offers guidance for practitioners, and a cautionary note as to the detrimental effects of alcohol.